Have you wondered whether your social relationships affect your self-esteem and whether your self-esteem affects your relationships? Well the verdict is in.
A new analysis of research data collected over a long period of time using 83 samples including 68,226 participants found that, over time, relationships and self-esteem reciprocally predict each (Harris & Orth, 2019). These two-directional effects were found to be true at all developmental stages across the life span.
The data used had been collected between 1979 and 2011 and the studies were published between 1993 and 2016.
Different ethnicities were included: 60% of the samples were predominantly White, 2% were predominantly Hispanic/Latino/a, 12% were predominantly of another ethnicity, and 19% were of mixed ethnicities; for 8% of the samples, information on ethnicity was not available.
Thirty samples were from the United…